Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of Fruits and Foods

What is the TPA?

  • TPA is Abbreviation for Texture Profile Analysis
  • Instrumental Methods of Measuring Food Texture
  • Objective Analysis of Sensory Evaluation by Simulating Double Bites of Food

Parameter of TPA

Fracturability: F1

  • The first significant peak F1 [Unit: kg, g, N], also known as Brittleness
  • Not all products fracture.
  • A parameter for brittle foods such as cereals, chips  and crackers.

Hardness: F2

  • The maximum peak force F2 [Unit: kg, g, N] during the first compression cycle
  • The maximum force required to compress a food between the molar and teeth
  • Related to the strength of gel structure under compression

Adhesiveness: A3

  • Negative force area, A3[kg·sec, g·sec, N·sec] during 1st compression process
  • The negative force area for the first bite
  • The work required to overcome the attractive forces between the surface of a food and the surface of other materials with which the food comes into contact

Cohesiveness (Consistency): A2/A1

  • The ratio of the positive force area during the second compression to that of the first compression
  • The strength of internal bonds making up the body of food -The degree to which a food can be deformed before it ruptures (breaks)

Springiness: (T3-T2)/(T1-T0)

  • The distance of the detected height during the second compression divided by the original compression distance, (T3-T2)/(T1-T0)
  • A ratio or percentage of a product’s original height

Gumminess (semi-solids): Hardness x Cohesiveness

  • F1 x A2/A1 = Hardness (gf) x Cohesiveness [kg, g, N]
  • The product of hardness and cohesiveness
  • A characteristic of semisolid foods with a low degree of hardness and high degree of cohesiveness

Chewiness (solids): Gumminess x Springiness

  • F1 x (A2/A1) x ((T3-T2)/(T1-T0))  = Gumminess (gf) x Springiness [kg, g, N]
  • A measure of energy required to masticate the food (normally solid foods)
  • The product of gumminess and springiness :hardness x cohesiveness × springiness

Resilience: A5/A4

  • The 1st compression upstream energy (A5) divided by the first compression downstream energy (A4), A5/A4
  • A measurement of how the sample recovers from deformation both in terms of speed and force
  • The elastic recovery of the sample